In the next link you will find the work of Henry Markram, who is building (with the help of 10.000 IBM laptops) a brain. Each of the laptops simulates the way one single neuron works.
Jeff Hawkins explains how neuroscience cannot be studied the way other areas are studied, and that there is no theory about how brain works. And that’s what he’s investigating.
…But the truth is that there is a theory, based on Thomas Bayes’ theories (release after he died… in 1761!!!) that are currently used for stadistic areas. This theories are trying to PREDICT the thinking of the brain, by introducing stadistic rules (based on our experience) and perception data (based on our senses). Karl Friston is working on that (http://www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/Friston/).
Christopher deCharms is developing a technique so they can explore what happens into our heads. This way, they can stop chronic pain by controlling the brain. It’s an investigational technology, but they have been successful in 44% to 64%. They hope that they will be able to do this with another areas (anger, addiction, depression…).
And… saving the best for last… Mr. Ramachandran (named in The Shallows, page 29, about the guy with the phantom limb) gives us 3 examples of how brain works (or doesn’t work).